History of manual therapy
The name of first specialist in manual therapy is unknown. But probably he was a hunter. Injuries, bruises, sprains during the hunter naturally forced to application of any treatment. Immobilization, bandaging, heat, herbal teas are traditionally using in ethnoscience. Hand allowances at dislocations sprains, overspringing marked the beginning of new specialty — manual case. Collect information on the anatomy and physiology of the musculoskeletal system their classification were predominantly at West.
Information about hand allowances in traumas of musculoskeletal system is in numerous literary sources in a whole world. Hippocrates knows it as effective method of treatment of spine diseases (therapy of rickets). Among the people techniques of traditional medicine handed down from generation to generation, contributing to the formation of manual case, subsequently turned into manual medicine.
New stage of the development of manual therapy was at the end of XIX century. There was discharge of two specialties in this sphere, on the basement of technical differences and some theoretic preconditions: osteopaths and chiropractors. Chiropractors (founder was D. D. Palmer) quickly performed manipulations, rough contact, including impact technique considerable amount of complications. Frequently this technique called method of short levers. In many cases treatment effect was striking and overwhelmed patients run away forget about crutches. Similar episode described in famous composition “The Forth Vertebra” by Finnish writer Martti Larni.
Osteopaths (founder was Andrew Still) used technique of long levers, so influence at the spine of patient was indirectly through extremities. Instead of chiropractics, osteopath used the progress of official medicine, reached great heights in the diagnosis, but they gave away to chiropractors in technique. At the first stages of developing medical education for both school wasn’t necessary, in different centers doctors have been prepared from some days and weeks (chiropractors) to even some years (osteopaths).
In our time, despite the International Federation of Manual Medicine (IFMM), what organized joint efforts of both directions in 1965 in London; in the world there are a lot of manual and osteopaths centers.
There were some congresses that take place every three years. The magazine Manuelle Medizin published; their headquarters is in FRG.
There is no necessary in costly medicaments; availability of adequate and effective in many diseases of the musculoskeletal system is the cause of existence this folk branch of medicine. In 1989 was the first Union Symposium on manual therapy (Moscow); as its decision in 1990 was organized All-Union Association of Manual Medicine (Wammy) and then The Russian Federal Association of Manual Medicine who have a lot of regional offices. Theoretic basement of the first stage of developing in manual therapy in country is conception primary structural lesions of the spine (osteochondrosis). Subsequently these ideas in the context of manual therapy were reviewed: object of manual therapy are not the structural changes, but functional restructuring in the work of locomotor system. (Ivanichev G.A. 1990, Lyev A. A., 1995).
Honorable president of Wammy was Professor K.K. Lewit for outstanding contribution in developing of manual medicine in the world and becoming it in Russia.
At the modern stage manual therapy reached great successes in their developing in Russia (unfortunately in Ukraine it is scattered and not reduced to a single structure, and is still considered alternative medicine) and widely using in medical practice by doctors of many specialties: neurologists, neurosurgeons, trauma, orthopedic surgeons, internists, pediatricians, physicians, physical therapy. It eased pains a lot of patients with different diseases of musculoskeletal system, the main pain of which were pathobiomechanical changes. That is why in 1998 manual therapy became as separate specialty. This in its turn confirmed the necessary of its developing as a medical science, not only in the way of improving of methods of manual diagnosis and therapy but also in the further its theoretical justification as scientific sphere.
Such work permit us look at solving these problems from the position new original situations.
Ivanichev G. Manual therapy. Leadership. Atlas — Kazan, 1997 — page 448.
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